A Negligence Primer — Good Samaritan Defense

This was originally written for my EMS friends, but the basic concepts still apply:  duty, breech, causation, and damages.

Setting the stage:  It’s 3am (of course), and you just laid down after watching a Star Trek – The Next Generation marathon when the tones go off, and the dispatcher announces another of a long line of winter vehicle rollovers.  Blah, blah, blah, icy roads and drunk drivers.  Wind and snow, minor extrication, neck pain and minor bleeding from the head, the patient intoxicated but friendly.  C-collar, the requisite uncomfortable backboard, and couple of big IVs just because, and a quick drop off at the local ER.  The next afternoon you hear the patient began seizing shortly after you left the ER, and died a short time later from a massive subdural.  Three years later you get the summons and complaint, naming you, your partner, your duty supervisor, your service, the hospital, the ER Doc, the radiologist, and the high school janitor as defendants in a lawsuit claiming negligence.

First, let’s dispense with the Good Samaritan defense.  You were on duty and paid a decent hourly wage.  Therefore, you’re not covered under the statute.

Negligence in the common parlance simply means you screwed up and you should have known better.  However, in legal terms, “negligence” has a very specific meaning, and very specific elements that require evidence to reach the conclusion that someone is “legally” negligent.  If the plaintiff is unable to prove each element of negligence, then the defendant cannot be found liable.

In order to be legally negligent, the plaintiff must show that the defendant had a duty to act (duty), that the defendant failed to follow the standard of required conduct (breach), that the failure was the cause of harm to the victim (causation), and that actual harm resulted (damages.)  These four elements: duty, breach, causation, and damages, must all be proven in order to prevail.  The Good Samaritan statute, which all EMTs seem to consider when thinking of negligence, speaks to two levels of negligence – simple negligence and gross negligence.  Outside of this narrow statute, however, the level of egregiousness is relevant only in the amount of punishment given.

Let’s flesh out this discussion a bit.  “Duty” is the easy one – did you have a duty to provide care to the patient.  Yes or no.  In the above case, for example, you were on duty and being paid to respond.  Therefore, yes, you had a duty.  This is the easiest of the four elements to prove, or to defend.  You’re off duty and drive past an accident scene which already has numerous responders present.  No duty, no negligence claim.  Volunteers can sometime have a bit more difficult time, but the standard becomes whether you in any way held yourself out at the time of the event to be available to respond.  If you were “on call,” duty attaches, if not, duty likely does not attach.

“Breach” is slightly more difficult to prove, but still often relatively easy.  Did you do (or not do) something beyond or outside the industry standard?  In other words, did you breach your duty to treat a particular illness or injury in an appropriate manner?  This is gross simplification, of course, because evidence would be required at trial about what, exactly, was the “standard of care” required in the given circumstance.  This makes this particular element the most wishy-washy, as dueling experts vie for the attention of the judge or jury.

“Causation” is the often missed elements by the lay public.  This means that your actions, or inactions, actually caused the harm being alleged.  If your patient was hit in the head by a pipe wrench, and you later drop him injuring his knee, you’re only responsible for the knee injury, not the whole shebang.  This can often be difficult to determine.  For example, a COPD patient presents with severe respiratory distress.  You provide high flow oxygen, but not CPAP; when the patient continues to deteriorate you elect to sedate and intubate, causing dental trauma, increased swelling to the throat and worsening of the distress.  The patient eventually arrests due to extreme hypoxemia.  How much was your fault, if any?  Would she have continued to deteriorate regardless of your actions?

“Damages” is reasonably straight forward, if the above elements have been met and determined.  First, were there actual injuries that caused harm to the patient?  It’s the “no harm, no foul” rule of negligence.  You should have given Amiodarone, not lidocaine, for an SVT according to your medical standing orders.  But the patient persevered and lived despite your best efforts.  You had a duty to act, you breached that duty, but you did not cause compensable harm.  While you may be on the soup line because you dangerously violated your standing orders, at least you won’t end up in court.   However, if actual harm was caused by you, then you are responsible for those damages.

One can be negligent in the common sense but not be legally negligent.  While this may be of little real comfort, EMTs should have a basic understanding of the general concepts of legal negligence.  As for the scenario mentioned above?  A good attorney will bring in a lot of questions.  Was the alcohol masking signs and symptoms of head trauma the EMTs and hospital should have recognized earlier?  Should the patient have been taken to a trauma center rather than just the local ER?  Did the EMTs adequately describe for the ER staff the circumstances surrounding the crash such that the physician and staff could better assess the totality of the patient’s potential injuries?  Obviously there aren’t enough details to make any reasoned response, and in the end it may take a judge or jury to flesh out all the answers.  Such is the nature of the legal world.

Are You An Employer? Workers Compensation Required?

Do you laugh at the home and garden shows on cable TV?  Do you snort in derision watching those folks spend tens of thousands of dollars on contractors?  Do you smirk to yourself because you know you can do the same thing better, faster, and cheaper?  Well of course you do, you’re an Alaskan.  Even before Home Depot and Lowes came to town we had Spenard Builder’s Supply, Eagle Hardware, and you could quote the price of a spanner wrench at your local ACE store.  When it comes to adding on or building from scratch, no one beats an Alaskan at getting things done.  And not just with Visqueen, blue tarps, and duct tape, either.

On a normal day you could sheetrock a hanger holding Alaska Airlines’ latest 737-stretch in an easy day’s work.  But what happens when you only have a morning?  Perhaps your spouse has lined you up for a snowshoe softball game this evening, or some fish is running in some creek somewhere.  Unfortunately your best bud is rough-necking on the Slope this week, and your brother is sleeping off a 4-pack of wine coolers on a beach in Hawaii.  What now?

Well, normally if you needed a little extra help you’d head on down to Beans Café where there are plenty of folks looking for honest work.  The modern version is to check on Craig’s List from your smartphone while driving to the local man store.  Either way you’ll find some chap willing to hammer, screw, lay tile, hang ‘rock, or just generally clean up your mess when you’re done.  For a hundred bucks or a promise of fresh salmon, Alaskan men will do most anything.

Unfortunately, you have now begun to tread upon the realm of The Man.  The Government.  The State.  The usurious villainy of a democratic republic.  A homeowner, or anyone else for that matter, who chooses to hire someone to do something, must comply with all the rules and regulations just like those fancy contractors who have websites and their names on their pickups.  This can be a rude awakening for many.  You just needed someone to haul Trex around the house while you’re putting on the hot tub deck, or perhaps someone to mix and pour concrete on the motorhome pad next to the garage.  But if you’re paying them, you’re an employer in the eyes of the state.

Fortunately this probably doesn’t mean you’ll have to read up on Obamacare.  But you do have certain responsibilities.  Perhaps the foremost of real concern is workman’s compensation.  Didn’t come to mind?  Paying insurance for just hiring some dude off the internet now and again?  Actually, yes, you are responsible.  If that poor fella trips over the water hose, bangs his thumb with a hammer, or slips and cracks his head while shoveling your driveway, he is a worker by Alaska standards and you are his employer.  It is necessary to report to the state that you have worker’s compensation insurance, and of course pay necessary premiums.

There are other requirements, too, such as keeping records of your employees, tax records, immigration forms, minimum wage laws, etc. etc. etc.  If nothing ever goes wrong one never has to worry, right?  More or less.  Of course our laws aren’t written for when things go right, but for when the unexpected happens.  Let’s say that poor fella really does get hurt.  There he is banging away with the nail gun and the compressor hose bursts.  Safety glasses are for wimps, so naturally splinters and other debris fly straight to his face blinding him for all eternity.  Or at least until the trial is over.  The State will try to hold you responsible for the entirety of his medical care and later disability, and will be knocking on your door grinning from ear to ear.  Actually you’ll get a nasty little letter letting you know that a worker’s comp claim has been filed, the State presumes you are responsible for the costs, and, by the way, there will be fines galore for not having the proper insurance in place and on file.

So what does this all actually mean?  The average Joe Alaska isn’t going to run out and get worker’s compensation insurance.  He’s also not going to be checking the bonafides of his day help.  He may not be keeping records or reporting employment taxes to the IRS.  This is Alaska, free man’s country, where we take care of things up front and don’t need nor want the government standing around looking over our shoulder making sure the paint is the proper color, consistency, and lead-free.  This ain’t Bolder or San Francisco, it’s Willow, or Tok, or Aleknagik.  What it means is that we need to carefully consider what we’re doing, how we’re doing it, and who’s doing it.  We  need to remain aware that we are responsible if something untoward happens.  After an accident you’ll probably think hiring that licensed small business contractor who already has the proper employment credentials and insurance would have been faster and cheaper.  He hires the fella from Beans or off Craigslist and actually insures them.

Will anything change after reading this little blerb?  Likely not, but us attorneys are around when the unthinkable or the unknowable happens.  So if your brother is snoring away on a tropical isle and your high school buddy is raking in big coin in the oil patch and you still need help slinging mud, keep in mind you are an employer, and subject to the crushing wheels of justice.

Federal Tax Liens

Understanding a Federal Tax Lien

A federal tax lien is the government’s legal claim against your property when you neglect or fail to pay a tax debt. The lien protects the government’s interest in all your property, including real estate, personal property and financial assets. A federal tax lien exists after the IRS:

  • Assesses your liability;
  • Sends you a bill that explains how much you owe (Notice and Demand for Payment); and
  • You neglect or refuse to fully pay the debt in time.

The IRS files a public document, the Notice of Federal Tax Lien, to alert creditors that the government has a legal right to your property.

How to Get Rid of a Lien

Paying your tax debt – in full – is the best way to get rid of a federal tax lien. The IRS releases your lien within 30 days after you have paid your tax debt.

Options: When conditions are in the best interest of both the government and the taxpayer, other options for reducing the impact of a lien exist.

  • Discharge of property — Allows property to be sold free of the lien. The seller or buyer can submit Publication 783, Instructions on How to Apply for Certificate of Discharge From Federal Tax Lien.
  • Subordination — Does not remove the lien, but allows other creditors to move ahead of the IRS, which may make it easier to get a loan or mortgage. For more information review Publication 784, Instructions on How to Apply for a Certificate of Subordination of Federal Tax Lien.
  • Withdrawal — Removes the public notice and assures that the IRS is not competing with other creditors for your property. If applying for a withdrawal, use Form 12277, Application for the Withdrawal of Filed Form 668(Y), Notice of Federal Tax Lien.

How a Lien Affects You

  • Assets — A lien attaches to all of your assets (such as property, securities, vehicles) and to future assets acquired during the duration of the lien.
  • Credit — Once the IRS files a Notice of Federal Tax Lien, it may limit your ability to get credit.
  • Business — The lien attaches to all business property and to all rights to business property, including accounts receivable.
  • Bankruptcy — If you file for bankruptcy, your tax debt, lien, and Notice of Federal Tax Lien may continue after the bankruptcy.

Avoid a Lien

You can avoid a federal tax lien by simply filing and paying all your taxes in full and on time. If you can’t file or pay on time, don’t ignore the letters or correspondence you get from the IRS. If you can’t pay the full amount you owe, payment options are available to help you settle your tax debt over time.

Lien vs. Levy

A lien is not a levy. A lien secures the government’s interest in your property when you don’t pay your tax debt. A levy actually takes the property to pay the tax debt. If you don’t pay or make arrangements to settle your tax debt, the IRS can levy, seize and sell any type of real or personal property that you own or have an interest in.

Clayton Walker

Alaska Corporation Voluntary Dissolution Outline

Outline for Alaska Corporate Dissolution.

A. Corporation Has Not Issued Stock or Commenced Business.

1. If the corporation has not issued stock and has not commenced business, a voluntary dissolution may be authorized by a majority of the incorporators.

B. Corporation has issued stock or has commenced business.

1. If the corporation has issued stock and has commenced business, the approval of the shareholders is required for voluntary dissolution of the corporation.

2. Shareholder approval is obtained as follows:

a. The board of directors of the corporation adopts a plan of liquidation and refers the plan to the shareholders for action.

b. A majority of shareholders, and a majority of the holders of each class of shares entitled to vote as a class, approve the plan of liquidation.

II. Filings and Notice.

A. Filings.

1. Under the Alaska Business Corporation Act, a Certificate of Election to dissolve is filed initially with the Alaska Corporations Commissioner. Articles of dissolution are filed after the completion of the winding up and liquidation of the corporation. A.S. 10.06.608.

2. Articles of dissolution stating compliance with A.S. 10.06.620.  A.S. 10.06.623.

B. Revocation.

1. The dissolution may be revoked prior to any actual distributions to shareholders under A.S. 10.06.610.

2. Revocation of dissolution is effective on filing.

C. Notice.

1. The corporation must give notice of the dissolution to holders of known claims against the corporation.  The notice must provide for a procedure and deadline for filing claims against the corporation.  See, A.S. 10.06.615 and .620

2. In order to notify holders of unknown claims, notice of the dissolution is published by the corporation in a newspaper. See, A.S. 10.06.653 (The heading discusses publication issues in the context of court and non-court directed winding up of the enterprise.  However, the actual provisions only discuss court winding up.) This notice must also provide for a procedure for filing claims against the corporation.

D. Effect.  The effect of dissolution is to cease the existence of the enterprise for all purposes other than suits, legal proceedings and actions by shareholders, directors and officers.  A.S. 10.06.625.

III. Winding Up and Liquidation.

A. Cessation of Business.

1. The operation of the business of the corporation must cease on or before the filing of certificate of intent to terminate, except as necessary to wind up the business operations and preserve good will.  A.S. 10.06.615.

2. The only continuing activity of the corporation should be that necessary to wind up its affairs and distribute its assets in liquidation.

B. Assemble Assets.

1. The corporation must assemble its assets and sell or otherwise dispose of those assets that will not be distributed to shareholders or to claimants.

2. Particular care should be given to identifying assets such as prepaid items and contingent claims that might otherwise be overlooked.

C. Satisfy Obligations and Liabilities.

1. The corporation must pay or provide for payment of all corporate obligations and liabilities and all claims against the corporation.

2. In the case of disputed or contingent claims, provision may be made for payment by depositing funds into an escrow or liquidating trust.

D. Distribution to Shareholders.

1. The assets of the corporation remaining after payment of or providing for claims should be distributed to the shareholders.

2. All known assets should be transferred with appropriate forms of transfer or conveyance, such as deeds, bills of sale, or assignments.

3. Unknown assets can be transferred to shareholders by an assignment specifically covering such assets.

4. A statement of the fair market value of all assets transferred should be provided by the corporation to each shareholder. This statement will be required for the shareholders’ income tax returns.

E. Stock Certificates.

1. All stock certificates of the corporation should be collected and canceled.

2. Stock certificates should be collected from shareholders in exchange for the assets distributed to them.

F. Timing.

1. If installment obligations of the corporation will be distributed in the liquidation, the liquidation should be completed within 12 months following the adoption of the plan of liquidation to enable noncorporate shareholders to report gain attributable to the installment obligations on the installment basis.

2. In other cases, the liquidation should proceed as quickly as possible. A protracted liquidation may result in the corporation’s being subjected to personal holding company or accumulated earnings taxes.

IV. Tax Filings.

A. Corporation.

1. Form 966 must be filed by the corporation with the Internal Revenue Service within 30 days after adoption of the plan of complete liquidation.

2. Forms 1099-DIV must be issued to all shareholders who have received $600 or more in the liquidation by January 31 of the year following the liquidation, and copies of these forms must be filed with the Internal Revenue Service, accompanied by Form 1096.

3. The corporation’s final income tax return must be filed by the 15th day of the third month following the close of its final tax year, which will generally be the date on which its assets are distributed to shareholders.

B. Shareholders.

1. Shareholders must report any gain or loss on the liquidation on their income tax returns for the year in which the liquidation occurs. If the shareholders have a loss, it may qualify as an ordinary loss under IRC §1244.

2. Shareholders must file certain information regarding the liquidation with those returns.

The following is my Outline for Corporate Dissolution.

 

A. Corporation Has Not Issued Stock or Commenced Business.

1. If the corporation has not issued stock and has not commenced business, a voluntary dissolution may be authorized by a majority of the incorporators under the Model Business Corporation Act.

2. If the corporation has not issued stock or has not commenced business, a voluntary dissolution may be authorized by a majority of the incorporators or by a majority of the members of the initial board of directors under the Revised Model Business Corporation Act.

B. Corporation has issued stock or has commenced business.

1. If the corporation has issued stock and has commenced business, the approval of the shareholders is required for voluntary dissolution of the corporation.  Under the Model Business Corporation Act, shareholder approval is required if the corporation has either issued stock or commenced business.

2. Shareholder approval is obtained as follows:

a. The board of directors of the corporation adopts a plan of liquidation and refers the plan to the shareholders for action.

b. A majority of shareholders, and a majority of the holders of each class of shares entitled to vote as a class, approve the plan of liquidation.

II. Filings and Notice.

A. Filings.

1. Under the Alaska Business Corporation Act, a Certificate of Election to dissolve is filed initially with the Alaska Corporations Commissioner. Articles of dissolution are filed after the completion of the winding up and liquidation of the corporation. A.S. 10.06.608.

2. Articles of dissolution stating compliance with A.S. 10.06.620.  A.S. 10.06.623.

B. Revocation.

1. The dissolution may be revoked prior to any actual distributions to shareholders under A.S. 10.06.610.

2. Revocation of dissolution is effective on filing.

C. Notice.

1. The corporation must give notice of the dissolution to holders of known claims against the corporation.  The notice must provide for a procedure and deadline for filing claims against the corporation.  See, A.S. 10.06.615 and .620

2. In order to notify holders of unknown claims, notice of the dissolution is published by the corporation in a newspaper. See, A.S. 10.06.653 (The heading discusses publication issues in the context of court and non-court directed winding up of the enterprise.  However, the actual provisions only discuss court winding up.) This notice must also provide for a procedure for filing claims against the corporation.

D. Effect.  The effect of dissolution is to cease the existence of the enterprise for all purposes other than suits, legal proceedings and actions by shareholders, directors and officers.  A.S. 10.06.625.

III. Winding Up and Liquidation.

A. Cessation of Business.

1. The operation of the business of the corporation must cease on or before the filing of certificate of intent to terminate, except as necessary to wind up the business operations and preserve good will.  A.S. 10.06.615.

2. The only continuing activity of the corporation should be that necessary to wind up its affairs and distribute its assets in liquidation.

B. Assemble Assets.

1. The corporation must assemble its assets and sell or otherwise dispose of those assets that will not be distributed to shareholders or to claimants.

2. Particular care should be given to identifying assets such as prepaid items and contingent claims that might otherwise be overlooked.

C. Satisfy Obligations and Liabilities.

1. The corporation must pay or provide for payment of all corporate obligations and liabilities and all claims against the corporation.

2. In the case of disputed or contingent claims, provision may be made for payment by depositing funds into an escrow or liquidating trust.

D. Distribution to Shareholders.

1. The assets of the corporation remaining after payment of or providing for claims should be distributed to the shareholders.

2. All known assets should be transferred with appropriate forms of transfer or conveyance, such as deeds, bills of sale, or assignments.

3. Unknown assets can be transferred to shareholders by an assignment specifically covering such assets.

4. A statement of the fair market value of all assets transferred should be provided by the corporation to each shareholder. This statement will be required for the shareholders’ income tax returns.

E. Stock Certificates.

1. All stock certificates of the corporation should be collected and canceled.

2. Stock certificates should be collected from shareholders in exchange for the assets distributed to them.

F. Timing.

1. If installment obligations of the corporation will be distributed in the liquidation, the liquidation should be completed within 12 months following the adoption of the plan of liquidation to enable noncorporate shareholders to report gain attributable to the installment obligations on the installment basis.

2. In other cases, the liquidation should proceed as quickly as possible. A protracted liquidation may result in the corporation’s being subjected to personal holding company or accumulated earnings taxes.

IV. Tax Filings.

A. Corporation.

1. Form 966 must be filed by the corporation with the Internal Revenue Service within 30 days after adoption of the plan of complete liquidation.

2. Forms 1099-DIV must be issued to all shareholders who have received $600 or more in the liquidation by January 31 of the year following the liquidation, and copies of these forms must be filed with the Internal Revenue Service, accompanied by Form 1096.

3. The corporation’s final income tax return must be filed by the 15th day of the third month following the close of its final tax year, which will generally be the date on which its assets are distributed to shareholders.

B. Shareholders.

1. Shareholders must report any gain or loss on the liquidation on their income tax returns for the year in which the liquidation occurs. If the shareholders have a loss, it may qualify as an ordinary loss under IRC §1244.   Shareholders must file certain      information regarding the liquidation with those returns.

 

Alaska’s New Security Interest Law

Security interest law concerns security interests in personal property rather than real property.  The law is generally known as UCC 9, or the Uniform Commercial Code section 9.  We find the statute at Alaska Statute 45.29.101-709.    Alaska recently adopted the 2010 changes to the security interest law.  The law is effective for security interests after July 1, 2013.

The law instituted significant changes between the old recording rules and the new rules.  The impact of not recording your security interests may mean that you can’t collect your debt if the debtor becomes bankrupt.

 

What you need to record a lien.

You must give value to a debtor.  The debtor must have rights in the collateral.  The Debtor must give an acknowledged security agreement to you.

Properly Recording Perfects the Lien.

Properly recording the security interest provides notice to the world of your rights and perfects your interest.  The new rule changes substantially change the recording rules.

Account Debtors Must Comply With Notice of Debt Assignment

The statute includes new provisions that need debtors to pay the assignee of a debt rather than the original creditor.  A debtor’s failure to pay the assignee after notice of an assignment leaves the debtor liable to pay twice.

Filing Financing Statements

You will still use form UCC-1 to file the financing statement.  In most circumstances you will only need to file a single document and not multiple documents in several jurisdictions.  You don’t need to get the debtor’s signature on the financing statement to file the document.  You also don’t need to have the organization’s ID or the form of their entity.  If the proper filing place is in Alaska you can file online here.

Foreclosure After Default

You can still engage in self-help repossession of property as long as you can go ahead without breaching the peace.  You can also start a judicial foreclosure.  There are also still the rights of proceeding with a strict foreclosure.

Substance over Form

The statute will apply to transactions, even if you word your agreement in a way to try and escape the statute.  The bankruptcy court is likely to consider whether there is an obligation and whether it is secured by collateral. For example, the sale of Accounts can still be considered simply a UCC 9 security agreement transaction.  The risks of not recording the financing statement are that someone else may claim priority over you or a bankruptcy judge could rule that you are not perfected and therefore not collateralized.  Similarly transactions where you keep title may be treated as a security interest, requiring perfection.  It also applies to consignments, sales of intangibles, sales of promissory notes and accounts.

The New Location Rules

Where you record the financing statement depends on the debtor.  The debtors place determines the choice of law and the place of filing.  Registered organizations must be recorded at the place where they are organized.  Alaska companies in Alaska.  Delaware companies in Delaware.  Individual debtors in the state of their residence.  Other entities at the chief executive office.

Foreign Debtors are recorded in their own country, if their laws are like our UCC9; otherwise, you will need to record in Washington DC.  For all Canadian provinces, except Quebec you would file in Canada.  For other countries you can take a look at Prof. Arnold S. Rosenberg’s work at Thomas Jefferson School of Law here.

Other Means of Perfection

There are other means of perfection such as control or automatic perfection.  The control generally concern accounts, such as deposits, investments, electronic chattel paper and letters of credit.

Recording your Financing Statements

The financing statement lasts for six years without a continuation.  When you search the state records you do not know whether the recorded documents were actually authorized.  They are based solely on the name of the debtor as typed by the submitting party.  All financing statement once recorded stay in the system, even if they have been terminated. If the financing statement has been wrongfully terminated your interest may be subject to the existing claims.  Accordingly, reviewing the state documents is merely the start of your due diligence.

Debtor Name Trap

Many people working for companies don’t actually know what the official name for their business is as recorded in the State’s records.  If you simply take your debtor’s word for the name of the enterprise, it is likely the name will be incorrect and that could leave you unsecured.  It is a best practice to get a copy of the record recorded with the state.  You want the name from the articles of incorporation.  When the debtor is an individual you want to use their name as typed on their current drivers license issued by the State of Alaska.

 

For more information on the changes to Alaska UCC 9 give us a call.

Business Lawyer Cannon Copier for 501(c) Enterprise

Business Attorney Copier
Copier for Qualified 501(c) Enterprise or $500.00
Business Lawyer Copier
Inside view of Cannon 5000

Tax Attorney Copier

 

Main Unit Specs

Model Name Cannon imageRUNNER 5000
Type Digital Multifunction Imaging System
Imaging System Laser Dry Electrostatic Transfer
Developing System Dry Monocomponent Toner Projection
Duty Cycle Up to 200,000 impressions/month
Max Copy Reservation 5 Jobs
Scanning Resolution 600 dpi x 600 dpi
Printing Resolution 600 dpi x 600 dpi
Interpolated Resolution 2,400 dpi x 600 dpi
Halftone 256 Gradations of Gray
Letter 50 cpm/ppm
Letter R 39 cpm/ppm
Legal 36 cpm/ppm
Ledger 30 cpm/ppm
First Copy Time 3.8 Seconds or Less (from Platen)
5.1 Seconds or Less (from ADF)
Multiple Copies 1 to 999
Magnification 25% – 400%, in 1% increments
Preset Reductions 25%, 50%, 64%, 73%, 78%
Preset Enlargements 121%, 129%, 200%, 400%
Acceptable Originals Sheets, Books and 3-Dimensional Objects (up to 4.4 lbs./2 kg)
Maximum Original Size 11″ x 17″
Standard Paper Capacity 2 x 550 Sheets + 2 x 1,500 Sheets
Manual Bypass 50 Sheets
Maximum Paper Capacity 7,650 Sheets
Output Sizes
Cassette Statement to Ledger
Bypass 4-1/8″ x 5-7/8″ to Ledger
Acceptable Paper Weights
Cassette 17 lb. -24 lb. Bond (550-sheet Cassettes)
17 lb. – 110 lb. Index (1,500-sheet Drawers)
Bypass 17 lb. Bond – 110 lb. Index
Duplexing Standard Automatic Trayless Duplexing
Warm Up Time 5 Minutes or Less
Exposure Control Automatic or Manual (Text, Photo or Text & Photo)
Power Requirements 115V, 60Hz
Dimension 44-3/4″ x 25-3/8″ x 29-1/4″
(1136mm x 643mm x 743mm)
Weight 462 lbs.

This is a 50 page per minute copier.  You can still obtain a manufacturers service contract on this machine.  It has been in Alaska for its entire operational life.  It was used by two succesful lawyers.  One of those lawyers is now a judge in Nome and the other has joined a firm in Washington.  I have been authorized to offer the copier to a charitable cause within Anchorage, Alaska or sell it.  Please use the form below to submit your offer of acquisition.

 

Alaska LLC Operating Agreements

Alaska LLC Operating Agreements

Partnerships have been around forever.  Corporations have been with us for 400 years. The American LLC was invented in Wyoming in 1977.  Alaska joined the fray more recently; however, they seem to have selected this entity as their entity of choice because the state makes it available for self filing online.  An Anchorage LLC lawyer helps point out some of the issues the State leaves out on their web site and why a visit with a lawyer can pay dividends later. Continue reading “Alaska LLC Operating Agreements”